Is there a way to filter blog posts like this plugin in Wordpress?

There’s a filter everything plug-in for Wordpress: Filter Everything — Product Filter & WordPress Filter – WordPress plugin | WordPress.org. Does ghost have something like this?

Ghost has no plugins. That’s a strength and weakness.

You might want to look at making collections/channels in routes.yaml, or tag pages (automatically created for all public tags). If you say more about what you’re trying to accomplish, you’ll get better help. :)